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By the end of the s Penguin was in financial trouble, and several proposals were made for a new operating structure. These included ownership by a consortium of universities, or joint ownership by the Cambridge University Press and Oxford University Press , but none of them came to anything. Later changes included the disappearance of 'Harmondsworth' as the place of publication: this was replaced by a London office address. From the headquarters of Penguin Books was at Harmondsworth west of London and so it remained until the s when a merger with Viking involved the head office moving into London 27 Wrights Lane, W8 5TZ.

A and had been spun off in because of the high complexity of import and export regulations. Penguin repurchased it in order to extend its reach into the US market, and NAL saw the move as a way to gain a hold in international markets. Irving sued Lipstadt and Penguin for libel in but lost in a much publicised court case. In , Penguin attempted to involve the public in collaboratively writing a novel on a wiki platform.

They named this project A Million Penguins. Consonant with Penguin's corporate mission to bring canonical literature to the mass market the company first ventured into publishing the classics in May with the issue of Penguin Illustrated Classics. The books were distinct from the rest of the Penguin marque in their use of a vertical grid anticipating Tschichold's innovation of and albertus typeface.

The series was not a financial success and the list ceased after just ten volumes the same year it began. Penguin returned to classics with the printing of E. Rieu's translation of Homer's Odyssey in , which went on to sell three million copies. Penguin's commercial motivation was, as ever, populist; rendering the classics in an approachable modern English was therefore a difficult task whose execution did not always satisfy the critics.


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As the publisher's focus changed from the needs of the marketplace to those of the classroom the criticism became more acute, Thomas Gould wrote of the series "most of the philosophical volumes in the Penguin series are bad — some very bad indeed. Since Plato and Aristotle are the most read philosophers in the world today, and since some of these Penguin translations are favourites among professional philosophers in several countries, this amounts to a minor crisis in the history of philosophy. The imprint publishes hundreds of classics from the Greeks and Romans to Victorian Literature to modern classics.

For nearly twenty years, variously coloured borders to the front and back covers indicated the original language. The second period of design meant largely black covers with a colour illustration on the front. In , Penguin announced it was redesigning its entire catalogue, merging the original Classics list known in the trade as "Black Classics" with what had been the old Penguin Twentieth-Century Classics list, though the silver covers for the latter have so far been retained for most of the titles.

Previously this line had been called 'Penguin Modern Classics' with a pale green livery. The redesign—featuring a colourful painting on the cover, with black background and orange lettering—was well received. However, the quality of the paperbacks themselves seemed to decrease: the spines were more likely to fold and bend. The paperbacks are also printed on non-acid-free pulp paper, which, by some accounts, tends to yellow and brown within a couple of years. The text page design was also overhauled to follow a more closely prescribed template, allowing for faster copyediting and typesetting, but reducing the options for individual design variations suggested by a text's structure or historical context for example, in the choice of text typeface.

Prior to , the text page typography of each book in the Classics series had been overseen by a team of in-house designers; this department was drastically reduced in as part of the production costs. The in-house text design department still exists, albeit much smaller than formerly.

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The Circle (Penguin Essentials)

Recent design work includes the Penguin Little Black Classic series. Lane expanded the business in with the publication of George Bernard Shaw 's The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and Capitalism under the Pelican Books imprint, an imprint designed to educate the reading public rather than entertain. Recognising his own limitations Lane appointed V. Krishna Menon as the first commissioning editor of the series [42] , supported by an advisory panel consisting of Peter Chalmers Mitchell , H.

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Several thousand Pelicans were published over the next half-century and brought high quality accounts of the current state of knowledge in many fields, often written by authors of specialised academic books. Aircraft Recognition S82 by R. Saville-Sneath, was a bestseller. In , the children's imprint Puffin Books began with a series of non-fiction picture books; the first work of children's fiction published under the imprint was Barbara Euphan Todd 's Worzel Gummidge the following year.

Another series that began in wartime was the Penguin Poets : the first volume was a selection of Tennyson 's poems D1 in Cohen's Comic and Curious Verse appeared in three volumes over a number of years.

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His final major initiative, the division was established as a separate publishing operation from Harmondsworth, and based in West Drayton in Middlesex. Alongside these and other series, the imprint continued another Penguin tradition by producing Education Specials, titles which focussed on often controversial topics within education and beyond. They included highly topical books such as The Hornsey Affair and Warwick University Ltd , reflecting the student unrest of the late s and contributing to the intense national debate about the purpose of higher education.

Other titles featured the radical and influential ideas about schooling propounded by writers and teachers from America and elsewhere. Penguin Education also published an extensive range of Readers and introductory texts for students in higher education, notably in subjects such as psychology, economics, management, sociology and science, while for teachers it provided a series of key texts such as Language, the Learner and the School and The Language of Primary School Children. More than 80 teachers, educational journalists and academics signed a letter to the Times Educational Supplement regretting the closure of the influential imprint [45].

Their purpose was to offer in-depth analysis of current affairs that would counter the perceived bias of the newspapers in addition to being the company's response to the popularity of Gollancz 's Left Book Club.

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Whereas the Left Book Club was avowedly pro-Soviet, Penguin and Lane expressed no political preference as their editorial policy, though the widespread belief was that the series was left-leaning since the editor was the communist John Lehmann and its authors were, with a few exceptions, [46] men of the left. Speed of publication and delivery a turnaround of weeks rather than months were essential to the topicality and therefore success of the Specials, Genevieve Tabouis 's anti-appeasement tract Blackmail or War sold over , copies for example.

However even this immediacy did not prevent them being overtaken by events: Shiela Grant Duff 's Europe and the Czechs only made it onto the bookstands on the day of the Munich agreement , but nevertheless went on to be a bestseller. After a hiatus between and , the Penguin Specials continued after the war under the editorship of first Tom Maschler, then after Tony Godwin.

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In December , Penguin launched nine titles as 'Penguin Shorts' [49] which featured the iconic tri-band covers. In they became known as Penguin Specials following an agreement with The Economist in March of that year [50] which focused on the kind of topical journalism that was a feature of the original Penguin Specials.

Subsequent Penguin Specials released in and continued to include both fiction, including the publication of the works shortlisted for the Monash Undergraduate Prize , and topical journalism. Noel Carrington , an editor at Country Life magazine, first approached Lane with the idea of publishing low-cost, illustrated non-fiction children's books in Despite Lane's intention to publish twelve a year paper and staff shortages meant only thirteen were issued in the first two years of the series.

Inexpensive paperback children's fiction did not exist at the time Penguin sought to expand their list into this new market. To this end Eleanor Graham was appointed in as the first editor of the Puffin Story Books series, [54] a venture made particularly difficult due to the resistance of publishers and librarians in releasing the rights of their children's books.

The first five titles, Worzel Gummidge , Cornish Adventure , The Cuckoo Clock , Garram the Hunter and Smokey were published in the three horizontal stripes company livery of the rest of the Penguin output, a practice abandoned after the ninth volume when full-bleed colour illustrated covers were introduced, a fact that heralded the much greater design freedom of the Puffin series over the rest of Penguin's books.

Graham retired in and was replaced by Kaye Webb who presided over the department for 18 years in a period that saw greatly increased competition in the children's market as well as a greater sophistication in production and marketing. One innovation of Webb's was the creation of the Puffin Club in and its quarterly magazine Puffin Post , which at its height had , members. Le Guin during Webb's editorship and saw the creation of the Peacock series of teenage fiction.

Tony Lacey took over Webb's editorial chair in at the invitation of Penguin managing director Peter Mayer [55] when Puffin was one of the few profitable divisions of the beleaguered company. In line with Mayer's policy of more aggressive commercialisation of the Penguin brand Lacey reduced the number of Puffin imprints, consolidated popular titles under the Puffin Classics rubric and inaugurated the successful interactive gamebook series Fighting Fantasy. Nikolaus Pevsner first proposed a series of volumes amounting to a county by county survey of the monuments of England in ten or more books to both the Cambridge University Press and Routledge before the war, however for various reason his plan came to nothing.

Pevsner described the project of the Buildings of England as an attempt to fill the gap in English publishing for those multi-volume survey of national art familiar on the continent.


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  • In particular Georg Dehio 's Handbuch der deutschen Kunstdenkmaler , a topographical inventory of Germany's important historic buildings that was published in five volumes between and The first volume, Cornwall , appeared in , and went on to produce 46 architectural guidebooks between then and of which he wrote 32 alone and ten with assistance. As early as the series was in commercial difficulty and required sponsorship to continue, a grant from the Leverhulme Trust amongst other sources [60] secured its completion. The series continued after Pevsner's death in , financed in part by the Pevsner Books Trust and published by Yale University Press.

    Pevsner's approach was of Kunstgeschichte quite distinct from the antiquarian interest of local and family history typical of English county histories. Consequently, there is little mention of monumental brasses, bells, tracery, the relationship of the building to the landscape. Wartime paper rationing, which had resulted in a generous allocation to Penguin, also forced the reduction in space for book reviews and advertising in the newspapers and was partly the cause of the folding of several literary journals , consequently left a gap in the magazine market that Lane hoped to fill.

    In January the first issue of Penguin New Writing appeared and instantly dominated the market with 80, copies sold compared to its closest rival, Cyril Connolly 's Horizon , which mustered 3, sales in its first edition. Yet despite popular and critical success further rationing and, after declining sales, led monthly publication to become quarterly until the journal finally closed in autumn after 40 issues.

    Penguin's Australian subsidiary released the Popular Penguins series late in The series has its own website. Popular Penguins are presented as a return to Lane's original ethos — good books at affordable prices. Popular Penguins are presented in a more "authentic" interpretation of the Penguin Grid than that of the Celebrations series. They are correct size, when compared to an original 'grid-era' Penguin, and they use Eric Gill 's typefaces in a more or less exact match for Jan Tschichold 's "tidying" of Edward Young 's original three panel cover design.

    The covers are also printed on a card stock that mirrors the look and feel of s and 50s Penguin covers. On the other hand, all of the Popular Penguins series are in Penguin Orange, and not colour-coded in the manner of the original designs and the "Celebrations" titles. King Penguin Books was a series of pocket-sized monographs published by Penguin Books between and The third volume began the alternative practice of colour plates from a variety of sources.

    Some of the volumes, such as Nikolaus Pevsner 's Leaves of Southwell or Wilfrid Blunt 's Tulipomania were pioneering works of scholarship. Some volumes by experts went into revised editions, such as A Book of English Clocks and by R.

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    Elizabeth Senior edited the series until , after which Nikolaus Pevsner took over and remained editor until the end of the series. The series ran to 76 volumes.