Manual Symphony No. 1 in E-flat Major, K16 (Full Score)

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Le Grand , but not the action of the dances. The Chaconne is joined with the Pas seul de M.

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The chaconne of French Baroque opera is a dance for the full company, with elaborate orchestral music in triple metre. It is a rondeau , with a refrain, several episodes, and a magnificent conclusion.


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The extraordinary scale of this main movement allows the composer not only rich scoring, but also contrasts of tempo and texture. Trademarks of the Mannheim orchestra are heard, notably in the crescendos built up with repeated figures. Once established in Vienna, Mozart was busy. They had their first children. Mozart was teaching piano pupils, writing arias for singers, and organising and performing his own concerts. These featured him as soloist and composer, above all — as the Viennese public most wanted to hear him — as a piano virtuoso.

Mozart reckoned he wiped the floor with him. In , performances of piano concertos began to feature in Mozart concerts. In Concerto No. Writing the concerto to play it in his subscription concerts, he seems mindful of the need to entertain. Meeting his public halfway, Mozart sacrifices none of his individuality. They have in common varied colours, transparency, and also darker shadings and concealed intensities, sometimes hovering between smiles and tears.

The instrumentation of this concerto is delicate — there are no trumpets or drums, and the woodwind, without oboes, is coloured by the mellow sound of the clarinets. The limpid surface is only occasionally ruffled by touches of minor keys. At the conclusion of the exposition, a new idea is given out softly by the strings, sounding as though it is continuing a discourse rather than beginning a new one. Mozart instructed players who improvised their own cadenzas in this work to be brief. His own cadenza is unique in his piano concertos for being fully written out in the score, rather than on a separate sheet.

The slow movement is in F sharp minor, the only time Mozart ever used this key. The music is both slow and sad — a sombre melancholy reigns. The rhythm is that of the siciliano dance. Wide intervals in the solo part imitate the contrasts of register of a singer. The last movement comes as a bracing, invigorating relief.

The rondo theme — simple, verging on the trivial — contrasts with the richness of all the other material. Melodies and rhythms race on uninterrupted, except for a pause before the flute and bassoons set off the second subject. A carefree and sauntering theme suddenly comes in like a new character in the comic opera finales of which Mozart was the supreme master.

They were expected to make a cheerful noise, and frame the arias and concertos. No wonder posterity has seized on this Symphony No. They may have been intended for the subscription concerts Mozart scheduled for June and July , of which only the first took place, owing to insufficient subscribers. Symphony No. This is the most agitated and melancholy of the three symphonies. In the 18th century it was almost obligatory to end a minor-key symphony by turning cheerfully to the major at the end, but here the finale remains fixed in the original minor mood. The first movement opens with an accompaniment for divided violas, throbbing and passionate, and then the first subject is played, softly.

W. A. Mozart - KV 16 - Symphony No. 1 in E flat major

The second subject speaks of melancholy, in a more serene way, and in the major key. The development seems to pass through every key, and this chromatic boldness runs through the symphony, as though to communicate inner emotion. The mood is only suspended, temporarily, in the G major pastoral trio of a Menuetto minuet whose powerful rhythms go way beyond dancing elegance.

The development begins with an extraordinary extension of the main theme, played in unison, where Mozart touches each of the 12 notes of the scale.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Symphony No. 1 E-flat major K. 16 (full score)

Where the second subject might have been expected to turn to the major, Mozart follows the logic of the whole symphony to an unrelievedly dark conclusion. The Mozart Festival began with Mozart the legendary child prodigy. It concludes in legends, too, surrounding the Requiem Mass that Mozart left unfinished at his death. Querying some of the legend may make us less sentimental, but feeling better about Mozart. At his most productive in , when he wrote his last three symphonies, Mozart was chronically in debt, and wrote begging letters to a fellow Freemason, Michael Puchberg. Professionally, the outlook was good.

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English musicologist Julian Rushton compares Mozart to a modern family man, who, not expecting to die yet, owes money for goods bought with credit cards. He was working simultaneously on two operas of very different types. The Magic Flute , an entertainment rather like a modern musical, mixing low comedy with high-minded Masonic symbolism, was still delighting audiences at a suburban Vienna theatre, in their own language, as Mozart lay dying.

The grand ceremony of the overture has affinities with the Jupiter Symphony No. It begins with a sustained exploration of the key of C major. In the development this flourish swings adventurously through a variety of harmonies, leading to the return, not of the first, but of the second subject. Departing thus from the usual order enables Mozart to end with the same sequences that made the opening so effective.

Three works Mozart wrote for Stadler have ever since, more than any others, defined the expressive character and range of the clarinet: a trio with viola and piano K, , a Quintet with strings K, , and this concerto. The completion of the concerto may be connected with the visit of Stadler and Mozart to Prague.


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In a letter to his wife after their return, Mozart mentions orchestrating the rondo. That was on 7 October , less than two months before Mozart died. I have never heard the like of what you can contrive with your instrument. Never should I have thought that a clarinet could be capable of imitating a human voice so deceptively as it was imitated by you. Indeed, your instrument has so soft and so lovely a tone that nobody can resist it who has a heart. The concerto very closely integrates soloist and orchestra. The sound is mellow: there are no oboes; flutes, bassoons and horns surround rather than compete with the solo clarinet.

The last movement, superficially more exuberant, has the simplicity, in its main themes, of folk or dance inspiration. In the summer of Mozart received a commission from Count Walsegg zu Stuppach, an aristocratic amateur who, rather than as is claimed passing off music by professional composers as his own, liked to make his audience guess who was the composer. The commission was for a Requiem in memory of his wife. Fulfilment of the commission was interrupted by work on the operas The Magic Flute and La clemenza di Tito , as well as the Clarinet Concerto.

The manuscript shows that Mozart had completed the Introitus and Kyrie in full score. Some other sections are in a half-finished state, the vocal parts written in full, the instrumental parts sometimes complete, sometimes only sketched. There have been revisions of the instrumentation, and alternative completions.

Mozart chose the key of D minor — one associated with tragic drama in some of his greatest works, as in Don Giovanni , and with tenderness and pathos as well. The choral and solo passages are brought into balance with each other, and the writing for solo singers has lost all traces of virtuosity for its own sake. Milos Forman said they could cheat it, but it would be good if he learned how to play the piano. Hulce spent six hours a day for six months learning how to play the piano, and every Mozart symphony that was in the film.

It has been claimed that the concept for Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 's bizarre laugh was taken from "references in letters written about him by two women who met him", that describe him as laughing in "an infectious giddy" which sounds "like metal scraping glass". No citations have ever been provided for these letters, however. There is no indication as to who wrote them, to whom or when. And in the absence of further citations, these claims of historical evidence for Mozart's laugh should be regarded as dubious at best.

Robert L. We simply have no contemporary testimony at all as to how Mozart sounded when he laughed. The piece of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 's music with the oboe and clarinet themes, whose score Salieri so deeply admires in the early scenes, is the Adagio, or third movement, of the Serenade No.

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