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For instance: Socrates is a man. All men are mortal. The logic behind finding a reasoning based on a proposition and an inference that has something common with the said proposition is pretty straightforward. However, in the post-Renaissance era leading up to the modern age we came up with logical approaches that were based more on mathematical deductions and were far more accurate and less on the uncertainty of non-plausible premises.
In his book, Historia Animalium or History of Animals, Aristotle was the first person in human history to venture into the classification of different animals. He used traits that are common among certain animals to classify them into similar groups. For example, based on the presence of blood, he created two different groups such as animals with blood and animals without blood.
Similarly, based on their habitat, he classified animals as ones that live in water and ones that live on land. In his perspective, life had a hierarchical make-up and all living beings could be grouped in this hierarchy based on their position from lowest to highest. He placed the human species highest in this hierarchy. He also devised the binomial nomenclature. The difference is what makes the living organism different to other members of the family it falls within.
Aristotle is also known as the Father of Zoology.
As evident from his classification of living beings, all his classification procedures and several other treatises primarily involved different species of the animal kingdom only. However, he wrote a number of treatises that revolved around different aspects of zoology as well. Some of his popular treatises such as History of Animals, Movement of Animals, Progression of Animals and others were based on the study of different land, water, and aerial animals. Unlike his predecessors who merely documented their routine observations of nature, Aristotle worked on outlining specific techniques that he would use to make specific observations.
Using his observations, he was able to study the detailed growth of different organs as the embryo developed into a fully-hatched youngling. It is true that while Aristotle established new frontiers in the field of life sciences, his ventures into physics fall short by comparison. His studies in physics seem to have been highly influenced by pre-established ideas of contemporary and earlier Greek thinkers.
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For instance, in his treatises On Generation and Corruption and On the Heavens, the world set-up he described had many similarities with propositions made by some pre-Socratic era theorists. Similarly, Aristotle believed that any kind of change meant something was in motion. In a rather self-contradicting way at least the initial interpreters found it to be so , he defined the motion of anything as the actuality of a potentiality.
In its entirety, Aristotle understood physics as a part of theoretical science that was in sync with natural philosophy. Aristotle was the first to write a book that dealt with the specifics of psychology: De Anima or On the Soul. In this book, he proposes the idea of abstraction that reigns over the body and mind of a human being. The body and mind exist within the same being and are intertwined in such a way that the mind is one of the many basic functions of the body.
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In a more detailed psychological analysis, he divides the human intellect into two essential categories: the passive intellect and the active intellect. According to Aristotle, it is in human nature to imitate something that, even if on a mere superficial level, provides us with a sense of happiness and satisfaction. Perhaps the highlight of his psychological observations has been the delicate connection that binds human psychology with human physiology.
His contributions were a giant leap forward from the pre-scientific era psychology that went before him and led us into an age of far more precise qualitative and quantitative analysis. For his time and age, Aristotle was able to put forth a very detailed analysis of the world around him. But Aristotle had a far more generalized approach wherein he also covered the different aspects and phenomena of air, water, and earth within his treatise Meteorologica. The highlights of his Meteorologica treatise are his accounts of water evaporation, earthquakes, and other common weather phenomena.
Similarly, he categorized thunder, lightning, rainbows, meteors, and comets as different atmospheric phenomena. An attempt to summarize the rich details of Aristotelian ethics within the bounds of a couple of paragraphs will not do it justice.
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It represents the best-known work on ethics by Aristotle: a collection of ten books based on notes taken from his various lectures at the Lyceum. Aristotelian ethics outline the different social and behavioral virtues of an ideal man.
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Aristotelianism is the biggest example of the influence Aristotelian philosophy has had on the entire subsequent philosophical paradigm. Aristotelianism represents the philosophical tradition that takes its roots from the various works of Aristotle in philosophy. The route of conventional philosophy is highly influenced by different aspects of Aristotelian ideologies including his view on philosophical methodology, epistemology, metaphysics, aesthetics, ethics, and many more.
His philosophical works were first rehearsed and defended by members of the Peripatetic school. The Neoplatonists followed suit soon after and made well-documented critical commentaries on his popular writings. Aristotle believed that the polis reflected the topmost strata of political association. Irony Leitmotif Metaphor Moral Motif. Linear narrative Nonlinear narrative films television series Types of fiction with multiple endings. First-person Multiple narrators Stream of consciousness Stream of unconsciousness Unreliable Diegesis. Past Present Future. Schools of thought. Mazdakism Mithraism Zoroastrianism Zurvanism.
Kyoto School Objectivism Postcritique Russian cosmism more Formalism Institutionalism Aesthetic response. Consequentialism Deontology Virtue. Atomism Dualism Monism Naturalism. Action Event Process. By region Related lists Miscellaneous.
Significant proportion devoted to discussion of questions normally addressed in discursive philosophy. Julie, or the New Heloise. Marius the Epicurean. Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship. Philosophical stories that were greatly enjoyed even by Arthur Schopenhauer.
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The Man Without Qualities. The Unbearable Lightness of Being. Space Trilogy. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Journey to the End of the Night.
In Search of Lost Time. Nineteen Eighty-Four.
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? A novel version of his longer non-fiction book The Exegesis , outlining his intense interest in the nature of reality, metaphysics and religion. The Devil and the Good Lord. An existential novel outlining Simone de Beauvoir's philosophy. Includes the philosophical debate between Platonic realism and nominalism.